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53 RESEARCH ARTICLE
Association Between Health Behaviors and Family History of Cancer According to Sex in the General Population
Introduction: Family history of cancer and modifiable risk factors are each associated with cancer development, but no studies have assessed their association with each other by sex. This study aimed to examine modifiable risk factors in individuals with a family history of cancer compared with those without a family history of cancer, according to sex.
Methods: This study recruited 166,810 participants aged 40−79 years from Korea’s Health Examinee Study cohort between 2004 and 2014. Results were calculated as AORs and 95% CIs to determine the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives and modifiable risk factors. Data analyses were performed in 2018.
Results: The prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors, including current smoking, drinking alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, and abdominal obesity, were different according to the presence of a family history of cancer, cancer type of such a family history, and sex. Male participants with a family history of cancer were less likely to be current smokers or obese (AOR=0.95, 95% CI=0.91, 0.99 and AOR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99, respectively) than those without a family history of cancer, whereas female participants with a family history of cancer were more likely to be current smokers but less likely to be physically inactive (AOR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03, 1.23 and AOR=0.96, 95% CI=0.93, 0.98, respectively) than those without a family history of cancer.
Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that, in general, males with a family history of cancer show better health behaviors, whereas females with a family history of cancer demonstrate worse health behaviors.
INTRODUCTION C ancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, causing 8.9 million deaths in 2016.1 Well-known modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, and abdominal obesity, are known to affect the spectrum of cancer control,2 and, to a different extent, by sex.3,4 Changing Enelopes modifiable risk factors, which are also associated with personal, community, and social factors, can effectively prevent cancer. More specifically, per-sonal factors such as individual knowledge, attitude, and perceived benefits and risks are particularly important in controlling modifiable factors and reducing the risk of cancer.5
Family history of cancer (FHCA) is an important non-modifiable risk factor for cancer6 and may influence individual health beliefs, including risk perception.7−9 Because a family with an FHCA shares a common